Tennessee Valley Woodworkers
Vol. 15/ Issue 6 June 2000 Editor: Tom Gillard
The next meeting of the TN Valley Woodworkers
Will be held June 20, 2000 at 7:00 p.m. in the
Duck River Electric Building, Dechard, TN
All interested woodworkers are invited!
Annual TVWW Picnic- June 24th
DREMC Picnic Grounds
Mark your calendar now and plan to join the whole TVWW membership for fun, friendship and a great picnic on Saturday, June 24th. The picnic will be held at the park area adjacent to the DREMC facility in Decherd, TN from 5:00 PM until 8:00 PM.
The club will provide the beverages and the meat course. Everyone is asked to bring either a salad, a vegetable dish, bread(s) or a dessert. Also, since we will have to move extra tables to the park area, it would greatly help if everyone could bring their own lawn or folding chairs. Finally, if anyone has a croquet set or a horseshoe set, we'd like to borrow them for the picnic. Please call us, Maurice or Ruth Ryan at 931-962-1555 and let us know. Also, if you would like to offer to help out, we sure would like to hear from you.
DOOR PRIZE WINNERS
These lucky Ladies were the door prize winners at our CREATION IN WOOD exhibit.
In Winchester the winner a turned Walnut bowl donated by Tom Cowan was Fran Perry from Winchester.
In Tullahoma, Angela Brown from Estill Springs was the proud winner of a Walnut box donated by Ross Roepke.
And the Manchester winner was Carole Erickson from Hendersonville TN. Carole won a Cherry and Walnut jewelry box donated by Doyle Mc Connell.
The subject of name tags same up at the last meeting. Our name tags were made by K&S TROPHIES , 510 Country Club Drive , Tullahoma. They were about $5.00 including tax the last time we checked. When in Tullahoma you can go by and have one made. The tags are 1” x 3”with white letters on a blue background. Just tell the folks that you want a Tennessee Valley Woodworkers name tag. If you are never in Tullahoma , Henry Davis will be happy to take care of it for you, see him at the June meeting or give him a call at 393 - 3191.
Mother Nature's Busy Woodworker.
The beaver is North America's largest rodent. Adults may be 4 feet long and weigh over 60 pounds. A beaver is easy to identify because of its large size, its distinctive webbed hind feet and its large flat tail that resembles the end of a canoe paddle. The tail is nearly hairless and is a dull-black color. The "splat" that the tail makes when slapped on the water is one of the most distinctive of nature's sounds. The beaver's body fur is dark brown on its back and sides, and a light brown on its chest and belly. Its front feet are short and have heavy claws, and possess good dexterity for feeding, grooming, digging and lodge construction. Its hind legs are large and have fully webbed feet that propel it through the water when it is swimming.
Like the muskrat's, the beaver's fur is virtually waterproof, and provides the protection and buoyancy necessary for the animal's extended underwater activities. The beaver's eyes are small in proportion to its body size, allowing moderate vision both under and above water. It has well-developed senses of smell and hearing, and its nose and ears have valvular processes which close tightly under water. There is a similar valvular process in its mouth behind the incisor teeth, which allows the beaver to gnaw while underwater.
The beaver also possesses a specialized digestive system to help it digest tree bark, and a special respiratory adaptation, which gives it the capability to remain submerged for nearly 20 minutes. These specialized physiological and morphological adaptations serve both positive and negative functions; they have made the beaver well suited for a specific environment, but have also restricted it to very narrow habitat tolerances.
The beaver has two chisel-like incisors in its upper and lower jaws that grow constantly and are very effective tree cutting tools. These teeth are both self-sharpening and ever-growing, which means the beaver must use them continually to maintain their proper length and sharpness.
Distribution and abundance
In the early and mid l870s, beavers ranged over most of North America, but excessive commercial trapping and human encroachment on its habitat resulted in the beaver being nearly wiped out in the eastern and the southern parts of the country. Their numbers were also reduced in Nebraska, and as a consequence, trapping seasons were closed during the 1940s. Fortunately, there is no shortage of beavers in Nebraska today, and they can be found in virtually all areas of the state.
Habitat and home
In Nebraska, beavers are found along stream courses and rivers, small lakes and marshes. A beaver may dig a tunnel and form a den in a high stream bank or river bank, but in the standing water of lakes, marshes and backwaters, they most often pile tree limbs and other debris together, making a large, bulky, dome-shaped lodge. Beaver lodges are large structures constructed of wood and mud with at least one exit in deep water. Lodges contain a large bark-lined, above-water chamber that serves as the colony's "activity center." Although lodges are the most visible den sites, bank burrows are by far the most common denning structure in Nebraska. Burrows are usually dug from six to 20 feet into the bank before an above-water chamber is excavated and lined with fresh, shredded bark. On rivers like the Platte, where sandy soil prevents normal excavation, beavers will use the structural support of trees or shrub root systems to construct or maintain a den and burrow system. Over time, beavers will reinforce bank dens with sticks and mud, forming conical lodges called "half houses" at the water's edge.
The engineering skills possessed by beavers are well known. They are particularly adept at building dams, and may construct them across narrow, flowing waters, such as shallow streams and the channels of larger rivers.
When a beaver cuts a tree, he usually-starts by gnawing a notch at an easy-to-reach height, then goes to the opposite side of the tree and gnaws another a few inches below the first. He continues chewing the bark and wood away from between the two notches until the tree falls. The only way the beaver can control where the tree falls is by the position of the notches he chews in the tree's trunk. In addition to building the dam and lodge, beavers often form waterways so they can float food and building materials from one area to another.
Beavers are primarily bark-eaters, and ingest the bark of young twigs, and new growth of wood found between the outer bark and the wood of tree branches and trunks. In spring and fall, about half of the beaver's food is made up of woody vegetation. In summer it eats little woody vegetation, but in winter it feeds on it almost exclusively. It also eats corn and other row crops when they are available, as well as various water plants.
As fall approaches, the beaver begins to actively cut trees and shrubs for the colony's food cache. The quantity, quality and availability of this under-ice food supply will determine the condition and survival of the colony.
Beavers reproduce once a year, with mating activity beginning in January when rivers and wetlands are covered with ice. A 107 to 110 day gestation period follows, with an average of three to four young usually born in May. At birth the kits (young beavers) are fully furred, have their eyes open and incisor teeth visible. Kits are seldom seen until they are about one month old, though they are able to swim at birth, and are capable of being weaned in six to eight weeks. Although weaned within three months, the young usually remain with the family unit or colony for up to two years before leaving to establish a colony of their own. Typically, these two-year-olds will disperse, pair, establish territories, and raise their first litters at three years of age. However, under favorable conditions, they will produce their first litters at two years of age. The average lifespan of a beaver in the wild is three to four years. However, it is not uncommon to find eight-year-olds and rare individuals may reach or exceed 15 years of age.
The huge market for beaver felt was one of the main incentives that prompted the exploration and settlement of the west. Today beavers have both positive and negative economic values. The positive values center on the income generated by the harvest of beaver for their meat and fur, and the related recreational value. From 1942-86, nearly 400,000 beavers were taken by fur harvesters in Nebraska. Harvest totals from 1981-89 indicate an average annual harvest of 14,850 beavers valued at $255,000.
Beavers are also important in the management of river and wetland habitats. Their construction of dams and the subsequent formation of pools create habitat for a large number of highly beneficial wildlife species.
Negative impacts from beavers center on damage to trees and depredation to farm crops by cutting or flooding. Their burrowing activity can also cause shoreline erosion and structural damage to farm ponds, stock dams and dikes. These negative impacts are minimized through population regulation.
Items for FREE
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10" Craftsman radial arm saw
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TENNESSEE VALLEY WOODWORKERS MINUTES MAY 16, 2000
PRESIDENT, TOM COWAN CALLED THE MEETING TO ORDER AT 7:00 PM.
WELCOMED GUEST WERE: Steven Seville, Roger Hoff, Michael Brooks, Veeda Mayberry, Tommy Carter, Jim Carter, Jim Frazier, and Walter St.John Yurkiw
Chairman Jim Roy thanked all committee members for work in the Creation in wood and all that participated in the exhibits. Doyle McConnell announced that over 600 people registered at the Foothills exhibits in Manchester. Maurice Ryan announced that the picnic would be held June 24, 2000 at the picnic area near the Duck River building in Winchester. Everyone is encouraged to come and bring a dish and the club will furnish drinks. Name tags to be available at the picnic. Henry Davis has pictures of exhibits during creations in wood. Tommy Thomas announced that he has a source for various species of wood at reasonable prices. Henry Davis asked guest to sign register and “ Splinters” copies were available to anyone. Bob Reese requested that those coming to the picnic to please sign the list that was being passed around.
SHOW AND TELL
Tom Church-Jig for a Windsor chair seat.
Doyle McConnell –knobs illustrating knob making techniques.
Billy May-wood carving of an Eskimo maiden. The carving was made from white walnut and the base from black walnut.
Bob Reese-combined cedar and walnut to construct two bowls.
Manual Brown-sycamore veneer box with podunk lid.
Tommy Thomas-Pine carry all box with smaller boxes inside.
Henry Davis-showed a tool for woodturning that Bob Reese helped him make.
Jim Van Cleave-bar stool made of cherry.
Garry Runyan-tool box and illustrated knife making techniques.
Bob Reese demonstrated the use of various hand planes.
Gary Runyon discussed the making of planes and the function of the various parts.
Henry Davis showed his collection of hand planes. The history of hand planes was discussed.
Jim Van Cleave demonstrated the use of block planes on the edge of wood. Also, demonstrated the use of small planes on wood corners and cutting tendons down to size.
There were a total of 52 members and guest in attendance.
Respectfully submitted, John Mayberry, Secretary.